The EU is a unique supranational economic, political, customs, monetary, and increasingly defensive and security integration of European states created as a result of a process of cooperation and integration which began in the 50s of the 20th century.
The European Union (EU) is not a federal state like the United States or intergovernmental organizations such as the United Nations, but it seems sui generis creation.
Pooling sovereignty means, in practice, that the member states delegate some of their decision-making powers to common institutions that have been established so that decisions on specific matters of joint interest can be made democratically at European level.
The European Union operates on the principles of legality, autonomy, supremacy, subsidiarity, proportionality and solidarity, and has built an institutional structure consisting of common institutions, established by the founding treaties: the Council of the European Union, the European Commission, the European Parliament, the Court of Justice of the European Communities and the European Court of Auditors.
With the key institutions, the European Union has developed a number of bodies, executive and legislative bodies, agencies and services, including a particularly important role: the European Council, the European Economic and Social Committee, the Committee of the Regions, the European Ombudsman, the European Central Bank, the European Protection Supervisor data and so on. The Treaty of Lisbon stipulates that the European Council and the European Central Bank granted the status of the institution.
A Brief History of the EU
On May 1950, French Foreign Minister Robert Schuman gave an important speech based on the ideas of the French economist Jean Monnet on the creation of a new organization, in order to avoid new conflicts among European countries after World War II. Since then, 9 May is celebrated each year as Europe Day.
1951 Treaty of Paris establishing the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC). The six founders are Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg and the Netherlands.
1957 Rome Treaty establishing the European Economic Community (ECC) and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom).
1973 The first enlargement, the Community is increased to nine members, and developing common policies; Denmark, Ireland and the United Kingdom are new members.
1979 The first direct elections declared the European Parliament.
1981. Another extension: Greece joins the European Union.
1985 Schengen Agreement was signed in order to abolish checks at the borders between member states of the European Communities.
1986 Third enlargement: Spain and Portugal join the European Union, which now consists of twelve members. The Single European Act which are given legal basis for the establishment of a single - the internal market, signed in Luxembourg and in The Hague.
1990. After the fall of the Berlin Wall, East and West Germany are united.
1992 Treaty on European Union is signed in Maastricht, which established the European Union (EU) and lay the foundation for a common foreign and security policy, closer cooperation in the fields of justice and home affairs and the creation of economic and monetary union, including for unique currency.
1995 Fourth enlargement: the European Union expands to Austria, Finland and Sweden.
1997 Amsterdam Treaty is signed as an amendment to the Treaty on European Union and the Treaty establishing the European Community, and other relevant laws. It lay new principles and responsibilities in the area of common foreign and security policy, citizenship and rights of individuals, and increased the powers of the European Parliament.
2000 Treaty of Nice changed the system of decision-making in the European Union, to preparing for new extensions. Chairman of the European Parliament, the European Council and the European Commission solemnly proclaim the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union.
2002 Euro notes and coins were introduced, twelve countries adopt this currency. Fifth Enlargement: Czech Republic, Estonia, Cyprus, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia and Slovenia join the European Union. The European Constitution was signed in Rome.
2005. Voters in France and the Netherlands rejected the constitution in a referendum.
2007. Romania and Bulgaria join the EU, which expands to 27 members and thus ends the fifth enlargement. Slovenia is the thirteenth country to adopt the euro. Signing of the Treaty of Lisbon reform treaty as introducing innovations such as the President of the European Union, strengthened the functions of the Minister of Foreign Affairs with changed name "High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy", minus the number of commissioners and full legal personality (as is currently the case only with the European Community), which allows the signing of international agreements.
2008. Eurozone spread to Malta and Cyprus. She started the ratification of the Lisbon Treaty.
2009. Eurozone spread to Slovakia.
2013. Eurozone spread to Croatia.
If you want to learn more about the history of the European Union, click on the link http://europa.eu/abc/history/index_en.htm
Montenegro in the process of EU integration
2006 - A referendum on the independence of Montenegro
2007 - Contract signed a Stabilisation and Association Agreement
2008 - Application for EU membership
2009 - Answers to the European Commission
2010 - Obtained the status of candidate country
2011 - Began the process of accession
2012 - Accession negotiations begin